Wednesday, March 12, 2008


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Boidae
Genus: Python
Species: Python reticulatus
Geographic Range

The reticulated python can be found in the jungles of Southeast Asia. Its range includes the Nicobar Islands; Burma across to Indochina; and Borneo, Sulawesi, Ceram and Timor of the Philipines (Murphy and Henderson 1997).

Biogeographic Regions:
oriental (native ).

Reticulated pythons inhabit steamy tropical rainforests (Mattison 1999). These snakes are heavily dependent on water and can often be found near small rivers or ponds. They require tropical environments with temperatures in the range of 80 - 92 degrees F.

Terrestrial Biomes:
rainforest .
Physical Description
158 kg (high)
(347.6 lbs)

Basal Metabolic Rate

Mass: up to 350 lbs.

The reticulated python has a complex, geometric pattern, which incorporates a number of different colors. A series of irregular diamond shapes are positioned dorsally along the

back, usually flanked with smaller markings which have light centers. This gives the snake a netlike pattern, which is where it gets its common and Latin name. The head of this species is unmarked with only a conspicuous line running from each eye to the angle of the jaws. The size of this animal along with the unmarked head is usually enough to identify this species, even though there is some variation in pattern (Mattison 1999). Some of the variations in the pattern of this snake are listed as; Normal, Yellow Head, Calico, Albino, Tiger, Super Tiger, Jaguar and island forms (McCurley 1999). This is an extremely large snake, considered by many as the largest snake in the world (definitely the longest). Lengths of more than 16 feet are common and sizes of 25 feet or more occur regularly. The largest Reticulated python maintained in captivity was at the Pittsburgh Zoo; a 28.5 ft 320 lbs female named Colossus. They are sexually dimorphic in size, as females attain larger sizes than males. The largest reticulated python ever measured which was 32 ft 9.5 inches and holds the record for the largest snake in the world according to the Guiness Book of World Records, 1991 (Murphy and Henderson 1997). This is also a long lived snake; accounts of specimens 25 years old are commonplace in captivity.

Some key physical features:
ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry .

Sexual maturity is reached in the first 2 - 4 years. Males breed at 7 - 9 ft, while females are typically 11ft. before they become receptive. Breeding usually takes place between the months of September - March. Reduction in the photo-period and overall temperature declines are the primary driving factors that stimulate breeding behavior in these snakes. Both male and females may fast during this time, so appropriate weight is necessary. Fasting may last up until the eggs are laid in the case of females and most probably until the eggs have hatched (McCurley 1999). Females usually lay 25 - 80 plus eggs, which are then maternally incubated at 88-90 degrees F, for 80 - 90 days. Eggs are also large in size, greater than 250 g (Shine 1999). Female Reticulated pythons show maternal care for their offspring only in that they brood the eggs. While the eggs are developing females will coil around them and "shiver" producing muscle contractions which serve to increase the overall temperature of the eggs. Females will also defend their eggs against predators, however once the eggs hatch, they are on their own.

Key reproductive features:
gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate).

Reticulated pythons have a reputation of being aggressive. Because of their large size alone this animal should be given great respect. They are relatively non-social animals, as are most snakes, and prefer to be solitary. However, reticulated pythons have an aggressive feeding response, not aggressive behavior and are not generally confrontational. Wild caught snakes have a hard time adjusting to captivity and often bite to avoid interaction, leading to the misinterpretation that this is an aggressive animal. Also, mistreated captive animals or those that are not handled regularly are often referred to as being aggressive. However those reticulated pythons which are captive born and raised properly show no signs of aggression (McCurley 1999).

Key behaviors:
arboreal ; motile ; sedentary ; solitary .
Food Habits

Reticulated pythons are strictly carnivorous. They are most productive as ambush predators, often waiting in trees for unsuspecting prey (Murphy and Henderson 1997). They are also known to be active foragers, however this method of hunting is seldom used because of the amount of energy it requires. P. reticulatus typically feeds on birds and mammals. This diet extends however to dogs, large deer, pigs and on rare occasions humans (Mattison 1999, Murphy and Henderson 1997). R. Shine (1999) found that prey sizes increased rapidly with growth. Small snakes feed mostly on rats, but shift to larger mammals (e.g. pangolins, porcupines, monkeys, wild pigs, and mouse deer) at only 3-4 meters body length. Reticulated pythons, like all reptiles, have a low metabolic rate allowing them to go without food for long periods of time. In 1926, a captive specimen at Regent's Park refused food for 23 months, after which it accepted a meal and continued to feed normally (Murphy and Henderson 1997).
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

This snake does provide economically for the humans in its range that exploit them. They are heavily sold for their skin and meat. Also tourists visiting these areas often buy materials made from these snakes.
Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: [link]:
Not Evaluated.

This snake is widespread throughout its range but diminishing. Hundreds of thousands of reticulated pythons are taken from the wild to be killed for their skins each year, raising doubts about the long-term sustainability of this species (Shine 1999). These animals also fall victim to the Asian ritual of blood drinking and gall bladder removal (McCurley 1999). When encountered in its natural state by humans this snake is almost always killed. Rapid growth rate, early maturation and high fecundity are the only things keeping this snake around (Shine 1999).
Other Comments

Stories of reticulated pythons reaching sizes of 50 to 150 feet are common among folklore, however they have not been documented. Since the turn of the last century rewards have been offered for any snake 30 ft. or larger. To date the New York Zoological Society is offering $50,000 for a snake of this size (Murphy and Henderson 1997). An interesting fact about this snake is its ability to consume large artiodactyls, even those with antlers. If the antlers are small enough they are simply ingested and digested, however if they are too large the snake can actually break them back to lie along the body allowing them to be engulfed when the animal is consumed. It has been noted that these animals are sometimes swallowed hind quarters first (rarely) and that when the snakes works its way to the antlers, it stops, and allows its digestive acids to breakdown the animal's flesh until the antlers actually become weak and drop off.

Lokasi di aliran sungai Ayung, dengan arus kategori sedang di daerah itu. Sekelilingnya dipenuhi oleh pohon2 besar dan tua dengan semak2 berbatu. Jarang dilewati penduduk.lokasi yang tepat untuk hunting binatang yg bisa dipelihara.

Nesting Spot = Sangat luas cakupannya.

Point of Consideration =
1. Kedalaman dan arus air belum bisa dipastikan.
2. tebing curam dan batu licin di bantaran sungai.
3. Mitos penduduk setempat yg mensakralkan daerah tersebut.

Possible Animals On Spot (%) =
1. Pythons (Retic dan Molurus) - 50%
2. Colubrid - 50%
3. Varanus - 50%
4. Lizard - 80%
5. Turtles - 10%
6. Birds - 90%
7. Monkeys - 80%

Bali reticulatus

Here are some pictures of Bali Dwarf Reticulated Phyton. Some are seen and found not more than 4,5 m. But, some people had seen them up to 7 meters.

Bali Reticulatus are quiet special and unique in colorasation, pattern and size compare to West and East Part of Indonesian Area since Bali is located in the middle zone. In fact, each island in Middle Zone area has unique characteristics of snakes, especially Reticulated Pythons.

Actually, Bali itself is divided into 3 main areas of Reticulatus population. First is West Zone which is situated in west area of Bali covers 2 Regencies; Negara and Singaraja (where more Nothern part). Second is Middle Zoneincludes Denpasar, Tabanan, Badung, and Gianyar Regencies. The Third one is (East Zone) the most eastern regencies of BALI are Klungkung, Karangasem and Bangli. This clasification is based on the characteristics of Reticulated found in those area.

We found the tendencies and similarities to be classified on the snakes in each area. West are represent mostly bigger pyhtons. Most are found in Bali West National Park. Some have caught more than 8 m long Retic. Still in the area, we often see the King Cobra up to 5 meters. in the moment, holding the record the longest King ever found in Bali.

Middle Zone is representing residential, resort and city area. Retic often seen soaking and hunting in the residential areas and along the river banks and piles of garbage.

Eastern Zone shows the retics as natural predators of rhodents. There people preserve them to save their crops from rats. Their main habitats are in the surrounding farming lands. Retics are a bit rare to see here.